A causal metric is one used to choose a course of action that leads to improvement. It identifies a driver or reason for the observed outcome, suggests specific intervention(s) for positive change, and provides a means to assess whether the intervention has the desired effect. 
“Causal” is one of the 10 Characteristics of an Ideal Metric designated by the Marketing Accountability Standards Board.
Quality assured metric
MASB: Marketing Metric Accountability Protocol
- Accountable Marketing: Linking marketing actions to financial performance, 1st Edition; Eds. Stewart, David W. & Gugel, Craig; Routledge, 2016.
- Universal Marketing Dictionary Project, 2023.