Research and development (R&D) is the function of working through various sciences and technologies to design new products. This usually involves some basic research for creating new technologies and some applied research for converting those basic discoveries (and others) into specific new products.
The applied (or developmental) phase begins after new product concepts have been screened and desirable attributes set up for them. It ends when scientific personnel deliver to manufacturing the necessary process specifications and finished product specifications. R&D departments also have many other duties not so directly related to new products.
- ^ American Marketing Association, AMA Dictionary.